Seminal & Historical Articles

The articles listed in this section are meant to serve as an initial compilation of literature that is essential when attempting to interpret and manage cerebrovascular disease. This list is, by no means, exhaustive and some historical literature is just that... of historical interest. It is the intent of the editors to allow this list to grow with our specialty so that CV section members will have a ready reference through our organizations web portal. Please contact the section editors with literature suggestions.

Intracranial Aneurysms

Surgical Management

Rhoton AL Jr.

Neurosurgery. 2002;51(4 Suppl):S121-58.

Unruptured intracranial aneurysms--risk of rupture and risks of surgical intervention.

International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 1998;339(24):1725-33.


Giant fusiform intracranial aneurysms: review of 120 patients treated surgically from1965 to 1992.

Drake CG, Peerless SJ.

J Neurosurg. 1997;87(2):141-62.


A clinical study of the parameters and effects of temporary arterial occlusion in the management of intracranial aneurysms.

Samson D, Batjer HH, Bowman G, Mootz L, Krippner WJ Jr, Meyer YJ, Allen BC.

Neurosurgery. 1994;34(1):22-8.


The effect of surgery on the severity of vasospasm.

Macdonald RL, Wallace MC, Coyne TJ.

J Neurosurg. 1994;80(3):433-9.


The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery. Part 1: Overall management results.

Kassell NF, Torner JC, Haley EC Jr, Jane JA, Adams HP, Kongable GL.

J Neurosurg. 1990;73(1):18-36.


The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery. Part 2: Surgical results.

Kassell NF, Torner JC, Jane JA, Haley EC Jr, Adams HP.

J Neurosurg. 1990;73(1):37-47.


Failed aneurysm surgery. Reoperation in 115 cases.

Drake CG, Friedman AH, Peerless SJ.

J Neurosurg. 1984;61(5):848-56.



Endovascular Management

Long-Term Clinical and Angiographic Outcomes Following Pipeline Embolization Device Treatment of Complex Internal Carotid Artery Aneurysms: Five-Year Results of the Pipeline for Uncoilable or Failed Aneurysms Trial.

Becske T, Brinjikji W, Potts MB, Kallmes DF, Shapiro M, Moran CJ, Levy EI, McDougall CG, Szikora I, Lanzino G, Woo HH, Lopes DK, Siddiqui AH, Albuquerque FC, Fiorella DJ, Saatci I, Cekirge SH, Berez AL, Cher DJ, Berentei Z, Marosfoi M, Nelson PK.

Neurosurgery. 2017 Jan 1;80(1):40-48. 


Bioactive versus bare platinum coils in the treatment of intracranial aneurysms: the MAPS (Matrix and Platinum Science) trial.

MAPS Investigators.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 May;35(5):935-42. 


Stent-assisted coiling versus coiling alone in unruptured intracranial aneurysms in the matrix and platinum science trial: safety, efficacy, and mid-term outcomes.

Matrix and Platinum Science Trial Investigators.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Apr;35(4):698-705. 


Pipeline for uncoilable or failed aneurysms: results from a multicenter clinical trial.

Becske T, Kallmes DF, Saatci I, McDougall CG, Szikora I, Lanzino G, Moran CJ, Woo HH, Lopes DK, Berez AL, Cher DJ, Siddiqui AH, Levy EI, Albuquerque FC, Fiorella DJ, Berentei Z, Marosfoi M, Cekirge SH, Nelson PK.

Radiology. 2013;267(3):858-68.


Hydrogel-coated coils versus bare platinum coils for the endovascular treatment of intracranial aneurysms (HELPS): a randomised controlled trial.

HELPS trial collaborators.

Lancet. 2011 May 14;377(9778):1655-62. 


Ruptured intracranial aneurysms: factors affecting the rate and outcome of endovascular treatment complications in a series of 782 patients (CLARITY study).

CLARITY Investigators.

Radiology. 2010 Sep;256(3):916-23.


Defining the risk of retreatment for aneurysm recurrence or residual after initial treatment by endovascular coiling: a multicenter study.

Ringer AJ, Rodriguez-Mercado R, Veznedaroglu E, Levy EI, Hanel RA, Mericle RA, Lopes DK, Lanzino G, Boulos AS.

Neurosurgery. 2009;65(2):311-5.


Predictors of rehemorrhage after treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms: the Cerebral Aneurysm Rerupture After Treatment (CARAT) study.

CARAT Investigators.

Stroke. 2008 Jan;39(1):120-5.


Endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms.

Roy D, Milot G, Raymond J.

Stroke. 2001;32(9):1998-2004.


Guglielmi detachable coil embolization of acute intracranial aneurysm: perioperative anatomical and clinical outcome in 403 patients.

Viñuela F, Duckwiler G, Mawad M.

J Neurosurg. 1997;86(3):475-82.


Electrothrombosis of saccular aneurysms via endovascular approach. Part 1: Electrochemical basis, technique, and experimental results.

Guglielmi G, Viñuela F, Sepetka I, Macellari V.

J Neurosurg. 1991;75(1):1-7.


Electrothrombosis of saccular aneurysms via endovascular approach. Part 2: Preliminary clinical experience.

Guglielmi G, Viñuela F, Dion J, Duckwiler G.

J Neurosurg. 1991;75(1):8-14.


Surgical vs Endovascular Management

Ten-year analysis of saccular aneurysms in the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial.

Spetzler RF, McDougall CG, Zabramski JM, Albuquerque FC, Hills NK, Nakaji P, Karis JP, Wallace RC.

J Neurosurg. 2019 Mar 8:1-6.

The durability of endovascular coiling versus neurosurgical clipping of ruptured cerebral aneurysms: 18 year follow-up of the UK cohort of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT).

Molyneux AJ, Birks J, Clarke A, Sneade M, Kerr RS.

Lancet. 2015;385(9969):691-697


 The Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial.

 McDougall CG, Spetzler RF, Zabramski JM, Partovi S, Hills NK, Nakaji P, Albuquerque FC.

 J Neurosurg. 2012;116(1):135-44. 


 Rates of delayed rebleeding from intracranial aneurysms are low after surgical and endovascular treatment.

 CARAT Investigators.

 Stroke. 2006;37(6):1437-42.


International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion.

International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) Collaborative Group.

Lancet. 2005;366(9488):809-17.


International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised trial.

International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) Collaborative Group.

Lancet. 2002;360(9342):1267-74.


Natural History

Development of the PHASES score for prediction of risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms: a pooled analysis of six prospective cohort studies.

Greving JP, Wermer MJ, Brown RD Jr, Morita A, Juvela S, Yonekura M, Ishibashi T, Torner JC, Nakayama T, Rinkel GJ, Algra A.

Lancet Neurol. 2014 Jan;13(1):59-66.


The natural course of unruptured cerebral aneurysms in a Japanese cohort.

UCAS Japan Investigators

N Engl J Med. 2012;366(26):2474-82.


Unruptured intracranial aneurysms: natural history, clinical outcome, and risks of surgical and endovascular treatment.

International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms Investigators.

Lancet. 2003 Jul 12;362(9378):103-10.


Report of World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Committee on a Universal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Grading Scale.

Drake CG, Hunt WE, Sano K, Kassell N, Teasdale G, Pertuiset B, DeVilliers JC.

J Neurosurg. 1988;68(6):985-6.


Relation of cerebral vasospasm to subarachnoid hemorrhage visualized by computerized tomographic scanning.

Fisher CM, Kistler JP, Davis JM.

Neurosurgery. 1980;6(1):1-9.


Physical factors in the initiation, growth, and rupture of human intracranial saccular aneurysms.

Ferguson GG.

J Neurosurg. 1972;37(6):666-77.


Surgical risk as related to time of intervention in the repair of intracranial aneurysms.

Hunt WE, Hess RM.

J Neurosurg. 1968;28(1):14-20.



Carotid Artery Disease

Surgical Management

Prevention of disabling and fatal strokes by successful carotid endarterectomy in patients without recent neurological symptoms: randomised controlled trial.

MRC Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial (ACST) Collaborative Group.

Lancet. 2004;363(9420):1491-502.


Benefit of carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe stenosis.

North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators.

N Engl J Med. 1998;339(20):1415-25.


 Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis.

 Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study

 JAMA. 1995;273(18):1421-8.


Efficacy of carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid stenosis. 

The Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group.

N Engl J Med. 1993;328(4):221-7.


Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis.

North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators

N Engl J Med. 1991;325(7):445-53.


Correlation of cerebral blood flow and electroencephalographic changes during carotid endarterectomy: with results of surgery and hemodynamics of cerebral ischemia.

Sundt TM Jr, Sharbrough FW, Piepgras DG, Kearns TP, Messick JM Jr, O'Fallon WM.

Mayo Clin Proc. 1981;56(9):533-43.


Endovascular Management

Endovascular versus surgical treatment in patients with carotid stenosis in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): a randomised trial.

Lancet. 2001;357(9270):1729-37.


Long-term results of carotid stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients.

SAPPHIRE Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2008;358(15):1572-9.


Elective stenting of the extracranial carotid arteries.

Yadav JS, Roubin GS, Iyer S, Vitek J, King P, Jordan WD, Fisher WS.

Circulation. 1997;95(2):376-81.


Surgical vs Endovascular Management

Long-term outcomes after stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of symptomatic carotid stenosis: the International Carotid Stenting Study (ICSS) randomised trial.

International Carotid Stenting Study investigators.

Lancet. 2015 Feb 7;385(9967):529-38.


 Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis.

 CREST Investigators.

 N Engl J Med. 2010;363(1):11-23.


Ischemic Stroke Management

Mechanical Thrombectomy

Aspiration thrombectomy versus stent retriever thrombectomy as first-line approach for large vessel occlusion (COMPASS): a multicentre, randomised, open label, blinded outcome, non-inferiority trial.

Turk AS 3rd, Siddiqui A, Fifi JT, De Leacy RA, Fiorella DJ, Gu E, Levy EI, Snyder KV, Hanel RA, Aghaebrahim A, Woodward BK, Hixson HR, Chaudry MI, Spiotta AM, Rai AT, Frei D, Almandoz JED, Kelly M, Arthur A, Baxter B, English J, Linfante I, Fargen KM, Mocco J.

Lancet. 2019 Mar 9;393(10175):998-1008


Thrombectomy 6 to 24 hours after stroke with a mismatch between deficit and infarct.

DAWN Trial Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2018;378(1):11-21.


Thrombectomy for stroke at 6 to 16 hours with selection by perfusion imaging.
DEFUSE 3 Investigators.
N Engl J Med. 2018 Jan 24. [Epub ahead of print]


Endovascular thrombectomy after large-vessel ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from five randomised trials.

HERMES collaborators.

Lancet. 2016;387(10029):1723-31.


A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke.

MR CLEAN Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2015;372(1):11-20.


Randomized assessment of rapid endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke.

ESCAPE Trial Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2015;372(11):1019-30.


Endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke with perfusion-imaging selection.

EXTEND-IA Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2015;372(11):1009-18.


Stent-retriever thrombectomy after intravenous t-PA vs. t-PA alone in stroke.

SWIFT PRIME Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2015;372(24):2285-95.


Thrombectomy within 8 hours after symptom onset in ischemic stroke.

REVASCAT Trial Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2015;372(24):2296-306.


Endovascular therapy after intravenous t-PA versus t-PA alone for stroke.

IMS III Investigators

N Eng J Med, 2013;368:893-903.


A trial of imaging selection and endovascular treatment for ischemic stroke.

MR RESCUE Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2013;368(10):914-23.


Endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke.

SYNTHESIS Expansion Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2013;368(10):904-13.


Intracranial Stenosis

Stenting versus aggressive medical therapy for intracranial arterial stenosis.

SAMMPRIS Trial Investigators

N Engl J Med. 2011;365(11):993-1003.



Surgical decompression for space-occupying cerebral infarction (the Hemicraniectomy After Middle Cerebral Artery infarction with Life-threatening Edema Trial [HAMLET]): a multicentre, open, randomised trial.

HAMLET investigators.

Lancet Neurol. 2009 Apr;8(4):326-33.


Sequential-design, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial of early decompressive craniectomy in malignant middle cerebral artery infarction (DECIMAL Trial).

DECIMAL Investigators.

Stroke. 2007 Sep;38(9):2506-17. 


Decompressive Surgery for the Treatment of Malignant Infarction of the Middle Cerebral Artery (DESTINY): a randomized, controlled trial.

DESTINY Study Group.

Stroke. 2007 Sep;38(9):2518-25. 



 The Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) II Study

 IMS II Investigators

 Stroke. 2007;38(7):2127-35.


Intra-arterial prourokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial. Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism.

Furlan A, Higashida R, Wechsler L, Gent M, Rowley H, Kase C, Pessin M, Ahuja A, Callahan F, Clark WM, Silver F, Rivera F.

JAMA. 1999;282(21):2003-11.


PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke.

PROACT Investigators.

Stroke. 1998;29(1):4-11.


Arteriovenous Malformations

Medical management with or without interventional therapy for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA): a multicentre, non-blinded, randomised trial.

International ARUBA investigators.

Lancet. 2014;383(9917):614-21.


Natural history of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a meta-analysis.

Gross BA, Du R.

J Neurosurg. 2013;118(2):437-43.


A supplementary grading scale for selecting patients with brain arteriovenous malformations for surgery.
Lawton MT, Kim H, McCulloch CE, Mikhak B, Young WL. 

Neurosurgery. 2010;66(4):702-13.

Modification of the radiosurgery-based arteriovenous malformation grading system.
Pollock BE, Flickinger JC.

Neurosurgery. 2008;63(2):239-43.

Clinical outcome of radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

Steiner L, Lindquist C, Adler JR, Torner JC, Alves W, Steiner M.

J Neurosurg. 1992;77(1):1-8.


Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations of the brain.

Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Bissonette DJ, Jungreis CA, Maitz AH, Horton JA, Coffey RJ.

J Neurosurg. 1991;75(4):512-24.


The natural history of symptomatic arteriovenous malformations of the brain: a 24-year follow-up assessment.

Ondra SL, Troupp H, George ED, Schwab K.

J Neurosurg. 1990;73(3):387-91.


A proposed grading system for arteriovenous malformations.

Spetzler RF, Martin NA.

J Neurosurg. 1986;65(4):476-83.


Bleeding from cerebral arteriovenous malformations as part of their natural history.

Graf CJ, Perret GE, Torner JC.

J Neurosurg. 1983;58(3):331-7.



Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

Characteristics and long-term outcome of 251 patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas in a defined population.

Piippo A, Niemelä M, van Popta J, Kangasniemi M, Rinne J, Jääskeläinen JE, Hernesniemi J.

J Neurosurg. 2013;118(5):923-34.


Microsurgical anatomy of the dural arteries.

Martins C, Yasuda A, Campero A, Ulm AJ, Tanriover N, Rhoton A Jr.

Neurosurgery. 2005;56(2 Suppl):211-51.


Clinical course of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas with long-term persistent cortical venous reflux.

van Dijk JM, terBrugge KG, Willinsky RA, Wallace MC.

Stroke. 2002;33(5):1233-6.


A proposed classification for spinal and cranial dural arteriovenous fistulous malformations and implications for treatment.

Borden JA, Wu JK, Shucart WA.

J Neurosurg. 1995;82(2):166-79.


Cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas: clinical and angiographic correlation with a revised classification of venous drainage.

Cognard C, Gobin YP, Pierot L, Bailly AL, Houdart E, Casasco A, Chiras J, Merland JJ.

Radiology. 1995;194(3):671-80.


Intracranial dural arteriovenous malformations: factors predisposing to an aggressive neurological course.

Awad IA, Little JR, Akarawi WP, Ahl J.

J Neurosurg. 1990;72(6):839-50.


Neurological manifestations of intracranial dural arteriovenous malformations.

Lasjaunias P, Chiu M, ter Brugge K, Tolia A, Hurth M, Bernstein M.

J Neurosurg. 1986;64(5):724-30.



Cerebrovascular Bypass Surgery

Effects of extracranial-intracranial bypass for patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease: results of the Japan Adult Moyamoya Trial.

JAM Trial Investigators.

Stroke. 2014;45(5):1415-21.


Extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery for stroke prevention in hemodynamic cerebral ischemia: the Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study randomized trial.

COSS Investigators

JAMA. 2011;306(18):1983-92. 


Failure of extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. Results of an international randomized trial.

EC/IC Bypass Study Group.

N Engl J Med. 1985;313(19):1191-200.


Cavernous Malformations

Cerebral cavernous malformations: natural history and prognosis after clinical deterioration with or without hemorrhage.

Porter PJ, Willinsky RA, Harper W, Wallace MC.

J Neurosurg. 1997;87(2):190-7.


Natural history of the cavernous angioma.

Robinson JR, Awad IA, Little JR.

J Neurosurg. 1991;75(5):709-14.



Intracerebral / Intraventricular Hemorrhage

Efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgery with thrombolysis in intracerebral haemorrhage evacuation (MISTIE III): a randomised, controlled, open-label, blinded endpoint phase 3 trial.

MISTIE III Investigators.

Lancet. 2019 Mar 9;393(10175):1021-1032.


Thrombolytic removal of intraventricular haemorrhage in treatment of severe stroke: results of the randomised, multicentre, multiregion, placebo-controlled CLEAR III trial.

CLEAR III Investigators.

Lancet. 2017 Feb 11;389(10069):603-611


Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial lobar intracerebral haematomas (STICH II): a randomised trial.

STICH II Investigators.

Lancet. 2013 Aug 3;382(9890):397-408


Early surgery versus initial conservative treatment in patients with spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral haematomas in the International Surgical Trial in Intracerebral Haemorrhage(STICH): a randomised trial.

STICH investigators.

Lancet. 2005 Jan 29-Feb 4;365(9457):387-97.


Critical Care

Cerebral perfusion pressure: management protocol and clinical results.

Rosner MJ, Rosner SD, Johnson AH.

J Neurosurg. 1995;83(6):949-62.


Sustained increased cerebral blood flow with prophylactic hypertensive hypervolemic hemodilution ("triple-H" therapy) after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Origitano TC, Wascher TM, Reichman OH, Anderson DE.

Neurosurgery. 1990 Nov;27(5):729-39.


Evaluation of cerebrovascular spasm with transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

Aaslid R, Huber P, Nornes H.

J Neurosurg. 1984;60(1):37-41.


Aneurysmal rebleeding: a preliminary report from the Cooperative Aneurysm Study.

Kassell NF, Torner JC.

Neurosurgery. 1983;13(5):479-81.


Cerebral arterial spasm--a controlled trial of nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Allen GS, Ahn HS, Preziosi TJ, Battye R, Boone SC, Boone SC, Chou SN, Kelly DL, Weir BK, Crabbe RA, Lavik PJ, Rosenbloom SB, Dorsey FC, Ingram CR, Mellits DE, Bertsch LA, Boisvert DP, Hundley MB, Johnson RK, Strom JA, Transou CR.

N Engl J Med. 1983;308(11):619-24.


Treatment of ischemic deficits from vasospasm with intravascular volume expansion and induced arterial hypertension.

Kassell NF, Peerless SJ, Durward QJ, Beck DW, Drake CG, Adams HP.

Neurosurgery. 1982;11(3):337-43.


Relation of cerebral vasospasm to subarachnoid hemorrhage visualized by computerized tomographic scanning.

Fisher CM, Kistler JP, Davis JM.

Neurosurgery. 1980;6(1):1-9.


Time course of vasospasm in man.

Weir B, Grace M, Hansen J, Rothberg C.

J Neurosurg. 1978;48(2):173-8.




Intracarotid injection of sodium amytal for the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance. 1960.

Wada J, Rasmussen T.

J Neurosurg. 2007;106(6):1117-33.


Arterial dissections complicating cerebral angiography and cerebrovascular interventions.

Cloft HJ, Jensen ME, Kallmes DF, Dion JE.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000;21(3):541-5.

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