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Seminal & Historical Articles

The articles listed in this section are meant to serve as an initial compilation of literature that is essential when attempting to interpret and manage cerebrovascular disease. This list is, by no means, exhaustive and some historical literature is just that... of historical interest. It is the intent of the editors to allow this list to grow with our specialty so that CV section members will have a ready reference through our organizations web portal. Please contact the section editors with literature suggestions.

Guidelines & Statements

Guidelines for the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the ASA/ASA
E S Connolly, A A Rabinstein, J R Carhuapoma, et al
Stroke. 2012;43:1711-1737

Diagnosis and Management of Cerebral Venous Thrombosis: AHA/ASA Statement
G Saposnik, F Barinagarrementeria, R D Brown, et al
2011; 42:1158-1192. 

Recommendations for the Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms: AHA/ASA Statement
S C Johnston, R T Higashida, D L Barrow, et al
2002; 33: 2536-2544 

Indications for the Performance of Endovascular Neurointerventional Procedures: AHA/ASA Statement
P M Myers, H C Schumacher, R T Higashida, et al
Circulation. 2009;119:2235-2249


Aneurysm Management – Surgical

Giant fusiform intracranial aneurysms: review of 120 patients treated surgically from 1965 to 1992.
C G Drake and S J Peerless.
J Neurosurg, 1997 vol. 87 (2) pp. 141-162.

A clinical study of the parameters and effects of temporary arterial occlusion in the management of intracranial aneurysms.
D Samson, H Batjer, G Bowman, L Mootz, W Krippner, Y Meyer, and B Allen.
Neurosurgery, 1994 vol. 34 (1) pp. 22-8; discussion 28-9.

The effect of surgery on the severity of vasospasm.
R Loch MacDonald, MC Wallace, and TJ Coyne.
J Neurosurg, 1994 vol. 80 (3) pp. 433-439.

The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery. Part 1: Overall management results.
N F Kassell, J C Torner, E C Haley, J A Jane, H P Adams, and G L Kongable.
J Neurosurg, 1990 vol. 73 (1) pp. 18-36.

The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery.
N F Kassell, J C Torner, J A Jane, E C Haley Jr, and H P Adams.
J Neurosurg, 1990 vol. 73 (1) pp. 37-47.

Failed aneurysm surgery: reoperation in 115 cases.
CG Drake, AH Friedman, and SJ Peerless.
J Neurosurg, 1984 vol. 61 (5) pp. 848-856.

Aneurysm Management – Endovascular

Electrothrombosis of saccular aneurysms via endovascular approach.
G Guglielmi, F Viñuela, J Dion, and G Duckwiler.
J Neurosurg, 1991 vol. 75 (1) pp. 8-14.

Guglielmi detachable coil embolization of acute intracranial aneurysm: perioperative anatomical and clinical outcome in 403 patients.
F Viñuela, G Duckwiler, and M Mawad.
J Neurosurg, 1997 vol. 86 (3) pp. 475-482.

Defining the risk of retreatment for aneurysm recurrence or residual after initial treatment by endovascular coiling: a multicenter study.
A J Ringer, R Rodriguez-Mercado, E Veznedaroglu, et al.
Neurosurgery, 2009 vol. 65 (2) pp. 311-5; discussion 315.

Rates of delayed rebleeding from intracranial aneurysms are low after surgical and endovascular treatment.
CARAT Investigators.
Stroke, 2006 vol. 37 (6) pp. 1437-1442.

International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion.
A J Molyneux, R S C Kerr, L M Yu, et al.
Lancet, 2005 vol. 366 (9488) pp. 809-817.

International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised trial.
A Molyneux.
Lancet, 2002 vol. 360 (9342) pp. 1267-1274.

Endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms.
D Roy, G Milot, and J Raymond. Stroke, 2001 vol. 32 (9) pp. 1998-2004.


Carotid Disease – Surgical Management

Prevention of disabling and fatal strokes by successful carotid endarterectomy in patients without recent neurological symptoms: randomised controlled trial.
A Halliday, A Mansfield, J Marro, et al
Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial (ACST) Collaborative Group.
Lancet, 2004 vol. 363 (9420) pp. 1491-1502.

Benefit of carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe stenosis. North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators.
H J Barnett, D W Taylor, M Eliasziw, et al
N Engl J Med, 1998 vol. 339 (20) pp. 1415-1425.

Efficacy of carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid stenosis.
R W Hobson, D G Weiss, W S Fields, et al
N Engl J Med, 1993 vol. 328 (4) pp. 221-227.

Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high grade carotid stenosis.
D W Taylor and FHM Barneit.
N Eng J Med, 1991 325;7:445-53.

Endarterectomy for Asymptomatic Carotid Artery Stenosis
Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study


Carotid Disease – Endovascular Management

Endovascular versus surgical treatment in patients with carotid stenosis in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): a randomised trial.
Lancet, 2001 357(9270):1729-1737.

Elective stenting of the extracranial carotid arteries.
J S Yadav, G S Roubin, S Iyer, et al.
Circulation, 1997 vol. 95 (2) pp. 376-381.

Stenting versus Endarterectomy for Treatment of Carotid Stenosis (CREST Trial)
T G Brott, R W Hobson, G Howard et al for the CREST Investigators
N Eng J Med, 2010 vol. 363(1) pp. 11-23

Long-Term Results of Carotid Stenting versus Endarterectomy in High-Risk Patients
H S Gurm, J S Yadav, P Fayad for the SAPPHIRE Investigators

Stroke Management

Intra-arterial prourokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial. Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism. A Furlan, R Higashida, L Wechsler, et al.
JAMA, 1999; (21):2003-2011.

PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke. PROACT Investigators. Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism.
G J del Zoppo, R T Higashida, A J Furlan, et al.
Stroke, 1998 vol. 29 (1) pp. 4-11.

The Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) II Study
The IMS II Trial Investigators
Stroke, 2007; 38:2127-2135

Endovascular Therapy after Intravenous t-PA versus t-PA Alone for Stroke
J P Broderick, Y Y Palesch, A M Demchuk, et al for the IMS III Investigators
N Eng J Med, 2013;368:893-903.

Stenting versus Aggressive Medical Therapy for Intracranial Arterial Stenosis
M I Chimowitz, M J Lynn, C P Derdeyn, et al for the SAMMPRIS Trial Investigators
N Engl J Med, 2011


Cavernous Malformations

Cerebral cavernous malformations: natural history and prognosis after clinical deterioration with or without hemorrhage.
P J Porter, R A Willinsky, W Harper, and M C Wallace.
J Neurosurg, 1997 vol. 87 (2) pp. 190-197.

Natural history of the cavernous angioma.
J R Robinson, I A Awad, and J R Little.
J Neurosurg, 1991 vol. 75 (5) pp. 709-714.


Critical Care

Cerebral perfusion pressure: management protocol and clinical results.
M J Rosner, S D Rosner, and A H Johnson.
J Neurosurg, 1995 vol. 83 (6) pp. 949-962.

Evaluation of cerebrovascular spasm with transcranial Doppler ultrasound.
R Aaslid, P Huber, and H Nornes.
J Neurosurg, 1984 vol. 60 (1) pp. 37-41.

Aneurysmal rebleeding: a preliminary report from the Cooperative Aneurysm Study.
N F Kassell and J C Torner.
Neurosurgery, 1983 vol. 13 (5) pp. 479-481.

Cerebral arterial spasm--a controlled trial of nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.
G S Allen, H S Ahn, T J Preziosi, et al
N Engl J Med, N Engl J Med, 1983 vol. 308 (11) pp. 619-624.

Treatment of ischemic deficits from vasospasm with intravascular volume expansion and induced arterial hypertension.
N F Kassell, S J Peerless, Q J Durward, D W Beck, et al
Neurosurgery, 1982 vol. 11 (3) pp. 337-343.

Correlation of cerebral blood flow and electroencephalographic changes during carotid endarterectomy: with results of surgery and hemodynamics of cerebral ischemia.
T M Sundt, F W Sharbrough, D G Piepgras, et al.
Mayo Clin Proc, 1981 vol. 56 (9) pp. 533-543.

Relation of cerebral vasospasm to subarachnoid hemorrhage visualized by computerized tomographic scanning.
C M Fisher, J P Kistler, and J M Davis.
Neurosurgery, 1980 vol. 6 (1) p. 1.

Time course of vasospasm in man.
B Weir, M Grace, J Hansen, and C Rothberg.
J Neurosurg, 1978 vol. 48 (2) pp. 173-178.


Arteriovenous Malformations

Clinical outcome of radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations.
L Steiner, C Lindquist, J R Adler, et al
J Neurosurg, 1992 vol. 77 (1) pp. 1-8.

Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations of the brain.
L D Lunsford, D Kondziolka, J C Flickinger, et al
J Neurosurg, 1991 vol. 75 (4) pp. 512-524.

The natural history of symptomatic arteriovenous malformations of the brain: a 24-year follow-up assessment.
S L Ondra, H Troupp, E D George, and K Schwab.
J Neurosurg, 1990 vol. 73 (3) pp. 387-391.

A proposed grading system for arteriovenous malformations.
R F Spetzler and N A Martin.
J Neurosurg, 1986 vol. 65 (4) pp. 476-483.

Bleeding from cerebral arteriovenous malformations as part of their natural history.
C J Graf, G E Perret, and J C Torner.
J Neurosurg, 1983 vol. 58 (3) pp. 331-337.


Dural Arteriovenous Malformations

Intracranial dural arteriovenous malformations: factors predisposing to an aggressive neurological course.
I A Awad, J R Little, W P Akarawi, et al
J Neurosurg, 1990 vol. 72 (6) pp. 839-850.

Neurological manifestations of intracranial dural arteriovenous malformations.
P Lasjaunias, M Chiu, K ter Brugge, A Tolia, et al.
J Neurosurg, 1986 vol. 64 (5) pp. 724-730.


Bypass Surgery

Failure of Extracranial–Intracranial Arterial Bypass to Reduce the Risk of Ischemic Stroke — Results of an International Randomized Trial
The EC/IC Bypass Study Group*
N Engl J Med, 1985; 313:1191-120

Cerebral revascularization using radial artery grafts for the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms: techniques and outcomes for 17 patients.
L Sekhar, J Duff, C Kalavakonda, and M Olding.
Neurosurgery, 2001 vol. 49 (3) pp. 646-58; discussion 658-9.



Intracarotid injection of sodium amytal for the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance. 1960.
Juhn Wada and Theodore Rasmussen.
J Neurosurg, 2007 vol. 106 (6) pp. 1117-1133.

Arterial dissections complicating cerebral angiography and cerebrovascular interventions.
H J Cloft, M E Jensen, D F Kallmes, and J E Dion.
AJNR Am J Neuroradiol, 2000 vol. 21 (3) pp. 541-545.

Physical factors in the initiation, growth, and rupture of human intracranial saccular aneurysms.
G G Ferguson.
J Neurosurg, 1972 vol. 37 (6) pp. 666-677.


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