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Seminal & Historical Articles

The articles listed in this section are meant to serve as an initial compilation of literature that is essential when attempting to interpret and manage cerebrovascular disease. This list is, by no means, exhaustive and some historical literature is just that... of historical interest. It is the intent of the editors to allow this list to grow with our specialty so that CV section members will have a ready reference through our organizations web portal. Please contact the section editors with literature suggestions.

Intracranial Aneurysms

Surgical Management

Rhoton AL Jr.

Neurosurgery. 2002;51(4 Suppl):S121-58.

Unruptured intracranial aneurysms--risk of rupture and risks of surgical intervention.

International Study of Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 1998;339(24):1725-33.


Giant fusiform intracranial aneurysms: review of 120 patients treated surgically from1965 to 1992.

Drake CG, Peerless SJ.

J Neurosurg. 1997;87(2):141-62.


A clinical study of the parameters and effects of temporary arterial occlusion in the management of intracranial aneurysms.

Samson D, Batjer HH, Bowman G, Mootz L, Krippner WJ Jr, Meyer YJ, Allen BC.

Neurosurgery. 1994;34(1):22-8.


The effect of surgery on the severity of vasospasm.

Macdonald RL, Wallace MC, Coyne TJ.

J Neurosurg. 1994;80(3):433-9.


The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery. Part 1: Overall management results.

Kassell NF, Torner JC, Haley EC Jr, Jane JA, Adams HP, Kongable GL.

J Neurosurg. 1990;73(1):18-36.


The International Cooperative Study on the Timing of Aneurysm Surgery. Part 2: Surgical results.

Kassell NF, Torner JC, Jane JA, Haley EC Jr, Adams HP.

J Neurosurg. 1990;73(1):37-47.


Failed aneurysm surgery. Reoperation in 115 cases.

Drake CG, Friedman AH, Peerless SJ.

J Neurosurg. 1984;61(5):848-56.


Endovascular Management

Pipeline for uncoilable or failed aneurysms: results from a multicenter clinical trial.

Becske T, Kallmes DF, Saatci I, McDougall CG, Szikora I, Lanzino G, Moran CJ, Woo HH, Lopes DK, Berez AL, Cher DJ, Siddiqui AH, Levy EI, Albuquerque FC, Fiorella DJ, Berentei Z, Marosfoi M, Cekirge SH, Nelson PK.

Radiology. 2013;267(3):858-68.


Defining the risk of retreatment for aneurysm recurrence or residual after initial treatment by endovascular coiling: a multicenter study.

Ringer AJ, Rodriguez-Mercado R, Veznedaroglu E, Levy EI, Hanel RA, Mericle RA, Lopes DK, Lanzino G, Boulos AS.

Neurosurgery. 2009;65(2):311-5.


Endovascular treatment of unruptured aneurysms.

Roy D, Milot G, Raymond J.

Stroke. 2001;32(9):1998-2004.


Guglielmi detachable coil embolization of acute intracranial aneurysm: perioperative anatomical and clinical outcome in 403 patients.

Viñuela F, Duckwiler G, Mawad M.

J Neurosurg. 1997;86(3):475-82.


Electrothrombosis of saccular aneurysms via endovascular approach. Part 1: Electrochemical basis, technique, and experimental results.

Guglielmi G, Viñuela F, Sepetka I, Macellari V.

J Neurosurg. 1991;75(1):1-7.


Electrothrombosis of saccular aneurysms via endovascular approach. Part 2: Preliminary clinical experience.

Guglielmi G, Viñuela F, Dion J, Duckwiler G.

J Neurosurg. 1991;75(1):8-14.


Surgical vs Endovascular Management

The Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial: 6-year results.

Spetzler RF, McDougall CG, Zabramski JM, Albuquerque FC, Hills NK, Russin JJ, Partovi S, Nakaji P, Wallace RC.

J Neurosurg. 2015;123(3):609-17.


The Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial.

McDougall CG, Spetzler RF, Zabramski JM, Partovi S, Hills NK, Nakaji P, Albuquerque FC.

J Neurosurg. 2012;116(1):135-44.

The durability of endovascular coiling versus neurosurgical clipping of ruptured cerebral aneurysms: 18 year follow-up of the UK cohort of the International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT).

Molyneux AJ, Birks J, Clarke A, Sneade M, Kerr RS.

Lancet. 2015;385(9969):691-697


International subarachnoid aneurysm trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised comparison of effects on survival, dependency, seizures, rebleeding, subgroups, and aneurysm occlusion.

International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) Collaborative Group.

Lancet. 2005;366(9488):809-17.


International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) of neurosurgical clipping versus endovascular coiling in 2143 patients with ruptured intracranial aneurysms: a randomised trial.

International Subarachnoid Aneurysm Trial (ISAT) Collaborative Group.

Lancet. 2002;360(9342):1267-74.


Rates of delayed rebleeding from intracranial aneurysms are low after surgical and endovascular treatment.

CARAT Investigators.

Stroke. 2006;37(6):1437-42.


Natural History

The natural course of unruptured cerebral aneurysms in a Japanese cohort.

UCAS Japan Investigators

N Engl J Med. 2012;366(26):2474-82.


Report of World Federation of Neurological Surgeons Committee on a Universal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Grading Scale.

Drake CG, Hunt WE, Sano K, Kassell N, Teasdale G, Pertuiset B, DeVilliers JC.

J Neurosurg. 1988;68(6):985-6.


Relation of cerebral vasospasm to subarachnoid hemorrhage visualized by computerized tomographic scanning.

Fisher CM, Kistler JP, Davis JM.

Neurosurgery. 1980;6(1):1-9.


Physical factors in the initiation, growth, and rupture of human intracranial saccular aneurysms.

Ferguson GG.

J Neurosurg. 1972;37(6):666-77.


Surgical risk as related to time of intervention in the repair of intracranial aneurysms.

Hunt WE, Hess RM.

J Neurosurg. 1968;28(1):14-20.



Carotid Artery Disease

Surgical Management

Prevention of disabling and fatal strokes by successful carotid endarterectomy in patients without recent neurological symptoms: randomised controlled trial.

MRC Asymptomatic Carotid Surgery Trial (ACST) Collaborative Group.

Lancet. 2004;363(9420):1491-502.


Benefit of carotid endarterectomy in patients with symptomatic moderate or severe stenosis.

North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators.

N Engl J Med. 1998;339(20):1415-25.


Efficacy of carotid endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid stenosis. 

The Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group.

N Engl J Med. 1993;328(4):221-7.


Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis.

North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators

N Engl J Med. 1991;325(7):445-53.


Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis.

Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study

JAMA. 1995;273(18):1421-8.


Correlation of cerebral blood flow and electroencephalographic changes during carotid endarterectomy: with results of surgery and hemodynamics of cerebral ischemia.

Sundt TM Jr, Sharbrough FW, Piepgras DG, Kearns TP, Messick JM Jr, O'Fallon WM.

Mayo Clin Proc. 1981;56(9):533-43.


Endovascular Management

Endovascular versus surgical treatment in patients with carotid stenosis in the Carotid and Vertebral Artery Transluminal Angioplasty Study (CAVATAS): a randomised trial.

Lancet. 2001;357(9270):1729-37.


Stenting versus endarterectomy for treatment of carotid-artery stenosis.

CREST Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2010;363(1):11-23.


Long-term results of carotid stenting versus endarterectomy in high-risk patients.

SAPPHIRE Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2008;358(15):1572-9.


Elective stenting of the extracranial carotid arteries.

Yadav JS, Roubin GS, Iyer S, Vitek J, King P, Jordan WD, Fisher WS.

Circulation. 1997;95(2):376-81.


Ischemic Stroke Management

Extended Mechanical Thrombectomy Window

Thrombectomy 6 to 24 hours after stroke with a mismatch between deficit and infarct.

DAWN Trial Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2018;378(1):11-21.


Thrombectomy for stroke at 6 to 16 hours with selection by perfusion imaging.
DEFUSE 3 Investigators.
N Engl J Med. 2018 Jan 24. [Epub ahead of print]


Positive 2015 Mechanical Thrombectomy Trials

Endovascular thrombectomy after large-vessel ischaemic stroke: a meta-analysis of individual patient data from five randomised trials.

HERMES collaborators.

Lancet. 2016;387(10029):1723-31.


A randomized trial of intraarterial treatment for acute ischemic stroke.

MR CLEAN Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2015;372(1):11-20.


Randomized assessment of rapid endovascular treatment of ischemic stroke.

ESCAPE Trial Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2015;372(11):1019-30.


Endovascular therapy for ischemic stroke with perfusion-imaging selection.

EXTEND-IA Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2015;372(11):1009-18.


Stent-retriever thrombectomy after intravenous t-PA vs. t-PA alone in stroke.

SWIFT PRIME Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2015;372(24):2285-95.


Thrombectomy within 8 hours after symptom onset in ischemic stroke.

REVASCAT Trial Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2015;372(24):2296-306.


Negative 2013 Thrombectomy Trials

Endovascular therapy after intravenous t-PA versus t-PA alone for stroke.

IMS III Investigators

N Eng J Med, 2013;368:893-903.


A trial of imaging selection and endovascular treatment for ischemic stroke.

MR RESCUE Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2013;368(10):914-23.


Endovascular treatment for acute ischemic stroke.

SYNTHESIS Expansion Investigators.

N Engl J Med. 2013;368(10):904-13.


Stenting versus aggressive medical therapy for intracranial arterial stenosis.

SAMMPRIS Trial Investigators

N Engl J Med. 2011;365(11):993-1003.


The Interventional Management of Stroke (IMS) II Study

IMS II Investigators

Stroke. 2007;38(7):2127-35.


Intra-arterial prourokinase for acute ischemic stroke. The PROACT II study: a randomized controlled trial. Prolyse in Acute Cerebral Thromboembolism.

Furlan A, Higashida R, Wechsler L, Gent M, Rowley H, Kase C, Pessin M, Ahuja A, Callahan F, Clark WM, Silver F, Rivera F.

JAMA. 1999;282(21):2003-11.


PROACT: a phase II randomized trial of recombinant pro-urokinase by direct arterial delivery in acute middle cerebral artery stroke.

PROACT Investigators.

Stroke. 1998;29(1):4-11.


Arteriovenous Malformations

Medical management with or without interventional therapy for unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA): a multicentre, non-blinded, randomised trial.

International ARUBA investigators.

Lancet. 2014;383(9917):614-21.


Natural history of cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a meta-analysis.

Gross BA, Du R.

J Neurosurg. 2013;118(2):437-43.


A supplementary grading scale for selecting patients with brain arteriovenous malformations for surgery.
Lawton MT, Kim H, McCulloch CE, Mikhak B, Young WL. 

Neurosurgery. 2010;66(4):702-13.

Modification of the radiosurgery-based arteriovenous malformation grading system.
Pollock BE, Flickinger JC.

Neurosurgery. 2008;63(2):239-43.

Clinical outcome of radiosurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations.

Steiner L, Lindquist C, Adler JR, Torner JC, Alves W, Steiner M.

J Neurosurg. 1992;77(1):1-8.


Stereotactic radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations of the brain.

Lunsford LD, Kondziolka D, Flickinger JC, Bissonette DJ, Jungreis CA, Maitz AH, Horton JA, Coffey RJ.

J Neurosurg. 1991;75(4):512-24.


The natural history of symptomatic arteriovenous malformations of the brain: a 24-year follow-up assessment.

Ondra SL, Troupp H, George ED, Schwab K.

J Neurosurg. 1990;73(3):387-91.


A proposed grading system for arteriovenous malformations.

Spetzler RF, Martin NA.

J Neurosurg. 1986;65(4):476-83.


Bleeding from cerebral arteriovenous malformations as part of their natural history.

Graf CJ, Perret GE, Torner JC.

J Neurosurg. 1983;58(3):331-7.



Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

Characteristics and long-term outcome of 251 patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas in a defined population.

Piippo A, Niemelä M, van Popta J, Kangasniemi M, Rinne J, Jääskeläinen JE, Hernesniemi J.

J Neurosurg. 2013;118(5):923-34.


Microsurgical anatomy of the dural arteries.

Martins C, Yasuda A, Campero A, Ulm AJ, Tanriover N, Rhoton A Jr.

Neurosurgery. 2005;56(2 Suppl):211-51.


Clinical course of cranial dural arteriovenous fistulas with long-term persistent cortical venous reflux.

van Dijk JM, terBrugge KG, Willinsky RA, Wallace MC.

Stroke. 2002;33(5):1233-6.


A proposed classification for spinal and cranial dural arteriovenous fistulous malformations and implications for treatment.

Borden JA, Wu JK, Shucart WA.

J Neurosurg. 1995;82(2):166-79.


Cerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas: clinical and angiographic correlation with a revised classification of venous drainage.

Cognard C, Gobin YP, Pierot L, Bailly AL, Houdart E, Casasco A, Chiras J, Merland JJ.

Radiology. 1995;194(3):671-80.


Intracranial dural arteriovenous malformations: factors predisposing to an aggressive neurological course.

Awad IA, Little JR, Akarawi WP, Ahl J.

J Neurosurg. 1990;72(6):839-50.


Neurological manifestations of intracranial dural arteriovenous malformations.

Lasjaunias P, Chiu M, ter Brugge K, Tolia A, Hurth M, Bernstein M.

J Neurosurg. 1986;64(5):724-30.



Cerebrovascular Bypass Surgery

Effects of extracranial-intracranial bypass for patients with hemorrhagic moyamoya disease: results of the Japan Adult Moyamoya Trial.

JAM Trial Investigators.

Stroke. 2014;45(5):1415-21.


Extracranial-intracranial bypass surgery for stroke prevention in hemodynamic cerebral ischemia: the Carotid Occlusion Surgery Study randomized trial.

COSS Investigators

JAMA. 2011;306(18):1983-92.


Cerebral revascularization using radial artery grafts for the treatment of complex intracranial aneurysms: techniques and outcomes for 17 patients.

Sekhar LN, Duff JM, Kalavakonda C, Olding M.

Neurosurgery. 2001;49(3):646-58.


Failure of extracranial-intracranial arterial bypass to reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. Results of an international randomized trial.

EC/IC Bypass Study Group.

N Engl J Med. 1985;313(19):1191-200.


Cavernous Malformations

Cerebral cavernous malformations: natural history and prognosis after clinical deterioration with or without hemorrhage.

Porter PJ, Willinsky RA, Harper W, Wallace MC.

J Neurosurg. 1997;87(2):190-7.


Natural history of the cavernous angioma.

Robinson JR, Awad IA, Little JR.

J Neurosurg. 1991;75(5):709-14.


Critical Care

Cerebral perfusion pressure: management protocol and clinical results.

Rosner MJ, Rosner SD, Johnson AH.

J Neurosurg. 1995;83(6):949-62.


Sustained increased cerebral blood flow with prophylactic hypertensive hypervolemic hemodilution ("triple-H" therapy) after subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Origitano TC, Wascher TM, Reichman OH, Anderson DE.

Neurosurgery. 1990 Nov;27(5):729-39.


Evaluation of cerebrovascular spasm with transcranial Doppler ultrasound.

Aaslid R, Huber P, Nornes H.

J Neurosurg. 1984;60(1):37-41.


Aneurysmal rebleeding: a preliminary report from the Cooperative Aneurysm Study.

Kassell NF, Torner JC.

Neurosurgery. 1983;13(5):479-81.


Cerebral arterial spasm--a controlled trial of nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Allen GS, Ahn HS, Preziosi TJ, Battye R, Boone SC, Boone SC, Chou SN, Kelly DL, Weir BK, Crabbe RA, Lavik PJ, Rosenbloom SB, Dorsey FC, Ingram CR, Mellits DE, Bertsch LA, Boisvert DP, Hundley MB, Johnson RK, Strom JA, Transou CR.

N Engl J Med. 1983;308(11):619-24.


Treatment of ischemic deficits from vasospasm with intravascular volume expansion and induced arterial hypertension.

Kassell NF, Peerless SJ, Durward QJ, Beck DW, Drake CG, Adams HP.

Neurosurgery. 1982;11(3):337-43.


Relation of cerebral vasospasm to subarachnoid hemorrhage visualized by computerized tomographic scanning.

Fisher CM, Kistler JP, Davis JM.

Neurosurgery. 1980;6(1):1-9.


Time course of vasospasm in man.

Weir B, Grace M, Hansen J, Rothberg C.

J Neurosurg. 1978;48(2):173-8.




Intracarotid injection of sodium amytal for the lateralization of cerebral speech dominance. 1960.

Wada J, Rasmussen T.

J Neurosurg. 2007;106(6):1117-33.


Arterial dissections complicating cerebral angiography and cerebrovascular interventions.

Cloft HJ, Jensen ME, Kallmes DF, Dion JE.

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000;21(3):541-5.

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